No. the stage of growth changes in a 24 hour in-game period. So if some stage requires 2 game days (48h in game) to grow, you can water it right after it dries the soil or in the 47th hour, you'll have the same result.
But if you miss and water in the 49th hour, you will have to wait more 24h in game, cause it resets every 24h. The only exception is the first stage , that requires less time.